Patellar luxation


Patella luxation means that the knee moves out of position. Patella luxation is extremely rare in Moggies, however, purebred cats and specifically Abyssinians have this problem more often. There is an hereditary component, but the molecular background is not known. It can be successfully treated with surgary. If your cat is reluctant to jump or show abnormal gait take it to a specialist for examination.



Guillaumot, P., S. Scotti, C. Carozzo, B. Bouvy and J. P. Genevois (2008). "Two cases of surgically treated feline patellar fractures". Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol FIELD Full Journal Title:Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T 21(2): 156-8.

            A transverse patellar fracture in a six-month-old cat was successfully treated by figure-of-eight dorsal wiring of the patella. A longitudinal patellar fracture with luxation of a large medial fragment in a 2.5-year-old cat was treated by lateral marginal patellectomy with a positive outcome. While adding material to the few veterinary reports in that species, in this brief communication, the authors discuss the aetiology, diagnosis, and the treatment of the presented cases with regards to findings in previously published feline cases. [on SciFinder (R)]


Langley-Hobbs, S. J., G. Brown and U. Matis (2008). "Traumatic fracture of the patella in 11 cats". Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 21(5): 427-33.

            Traumatic patellar fracture in cats mainly occurred in male neutered cats with an average age of four years, six months and a mean weight of 4.8 kg. Patellar fractures were concurrent with long bone fractures and cruciate ligament rupture or occurred after gunshot. The patella luxated medially or laterally in four cats. Fracture fragments were usually small, either from the proximal pole (base) or distal pole (apex) or longitudinal fragments. Treatment was by fragment excision when the fragment was small or by reconstruction with pins and wires when fractures were comminuted. The outcome in six cats was reported as 'good' to 'normal' and three cats were 'improving' or had 'mild' intermittent lameness at the last follow up. [on SciFinder (R)]


Gillick, M. and K. Linn (2007). "Rotating dome trochleoplasty: an experimental technique for correction of patellar luxation using a feline model". Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol FIELD Full Journal Title:Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T 20(3): 180-4.

            The purpose of this study was to compare a trochlear block recession to a rotating dome trochleoplasty, a novel technique for the correction of patellar luxation in small animals. Twenty-eight limbs were used from 14 feline cadavers. With the stifles in flexion and extension, computed tomography was utilized to compare width and depth of the trochlea, medial trochlear ridge height, trochlear articular surface area preserved, patellar contact articular surface area, patellar area covered by the trochlear ridges and patellar tilt angle. The results of this study demonstrated that a rotating dome trochleoplasty is superior to a trochlear block recession with regard to medial trochlear height, trochlear width, trochlear depth and trochlear surface area preservation. The results of this study support further biomechanical evaluation of this technique which eventually may lead to clinical trials. [on SciFinder (R)]


Harasen, G. (2006). "Patellar luxation". Can Vet J FIELD Full Journal Title:The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 47(8): 817-8.

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Loughin Catherine, A., C. Kerwin Sharon, G. Hosgood, P. B. Ringwood, J. Williams, D. Stefanacci Joseph and J. McCarthy Robert (2006). "Clinical signs and results of treatment in cats with patellar luxation: 42 cases (1992-2002)". J Am Vet Med Assoc FIELD Full Journal Title:Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 228(9): 1370-5.

            OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical signs and results of treatment in cats with patellar luxation. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 42 cats in which patellar luxation had been diagnosed on the basis of results of palpation of the stifle joints. PROCEDURES: Degree of luxation was graded on a scale from 1 to 4, and severity of lameness was graded on a scale from 0 to 5. Radiographs of stifle joints were evaluated for signs of osteoarthritis. Long-term function was classified as poor, fair, good, or excellent. RESULTS: 34 cats had bilateral luxation and 8 had unilateral luxation. Only 7 (17%) cats had a history of trauma. Mean age of the cats was 3.3 years, and mean weight was 4.26 kg (9.4 lb); 26 (62%) were domestic shorthairs. Seventy-three of the 76 (95%) affected joints had medial patellar luxation. Luxation grades could be assigned to 65 joints, with grade 2 (30 joints) and 3 (22 joints) luxation being most common. Lameness grades could be assigned to 73 joints, with grade 1 lameness (27 joints) most common. Outcome was excellent for 8 of 17 joints treated without surgery and for 23 of 35 joints treated surgically. Complications attributable to surgery were reported in 8 cats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Patellar luxation should be considered as a cause of hind limb lameness in cats. Low-grade luxation can be associated with lameness of the same severity as high-grade luxation. Surgical correction of patellar luxation in cats with grade 2 or 3 lameness can result in a favorable outcome. [on SciFinder (R)]


Duzgun, O. (2005). "A retrospective study:Evaluation of Patellar Luxation in cats". Turk J Vet Anim Sci (29): 279-283.

            Patellar luxation is an orthopedic disorder seen rarely in cats. In this study, patellar luxation was encountered in 8 of 7744

            cats brought to the Department of Surgery of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Üstanbul University between the years of 1995-2001. The rate of patellar luxation was 0.10% of feline cases. The patellar luxation incidence in 5145 orthopedic lesions in cats was 0.15%. Clinical symptoms such as difficulty in walking, running with a hop and abnormal stance in the hindlimb were seen in patients diagnosed using skyline radiography technique. The aim of the present study was the clinical diagnosis and early treatment of this low incidence disease of cats. Treatment procedures have been determined in these early-diagnosed cases according to the degree of the disease. Two of these cases were treated conservatively and 6 operatively. It was concluded that capsuloraphy combined with sulcoplasty increased the success rate.


Cornillie, P., S. Van Lancker and P. Simoens (2004). Two cases of brachymelia in cats. Germany: Germany, Federal Republic of, Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.: 115-8.

            In this report, two cases of brachymelia in related neonatal cats are described. The malformations are described in view of normal limb development, which is illustrated by scanning electron microscopic images. Hypoplasia and aplasia of the distal limb segments were the main disorders in both kittens. Additional malformations in the second case included fusion of the radius and ulna, congenital patella luxation and a shortened tail. Brachymelia and similar cases of feline dysmelia are poorly documented in the existing literature. Possible causes and terminology of these developmental deformations are discussed. [on SciFinder (R)]


Schultheiss, P. C., S. A. Gardner, J. M. Owens, D. A. Wenger and M. A. Thrall (2000). Mucopolysaccharidosis VII in a cat. United States, Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA.: 502-5.

            Mucopolysaccharidosis VII was diagnosed in a domestic shorthair cat from California. The cat was small and had multiple abnormalities, including a small body disproportionate to the size of the skull, angular deformities of the ribs, abnormally short forelimbs, luxating patellas, generalized epiphyseal dysplasia involving the vertebrae and long bones, cuboidal vertebrae, pectus excavatum, subluxation of both hips, osteosclerosis of the tentorium cerebelli and left petrous temporal bone, tracheal hypoplasia, and corneal clouding. Beta-glucuronidase activity was markedly decreased in peripheral blood leukocytes. The cat died at 21 months of age, and a complete necropsy was performed. Tissues were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Large clear, round vacuoles representing distended lysosomes were present in many epithelial and connective tissue cells, including fibrocytes, chondrocytes, smooth muscle cells, hepatocytes, astrocytes, and macrophages. [on SciFinder (R)]


Smith, G. K., A. Langenbach, P. A. Green, W. H. Rhodes, T. P. Gregor and U. Giger (1999). "Evaluation of the association between medial patellar luxation and hip dysplasia in cats". J Am Vet Med Assoc FIELD Full Journal Title:Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215(1): 40-5.

            OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between hip dysplasia (HD) and medial patellar luxation (MPL) in cats. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prevalence study. ANIMALS: 78 cats. PROCEDURE: A complete history was obtained. Cats were examined to detect MPL and HD. Radiographs of the stifle and hip joints were obtained. Hip joints were evaluated by use of Norberg angle, distraction index, and scoring consistent with that established by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals. RESULTS: There were 43 male and 35 female cats mean age, 2.5 years). Eleven cats had clinical signs of disease in the pelvic limbs. Medial subluxation of the patella (subgrade 1) was seen in 31 of 33 cats with otherwise normal stifle joints. Medial patellar luxation was found in 45 of 78 (58%) cats, and 35 of 45 (78%) had grade-1 MPL. Bilateral MPL was seen in 32 of 45 (71%) cats. A weak association existed between MPL and HD, because cats were 3 times more likely to have HD and patellar luxation than to have either condition alone. Concurrent MPL and HD were detected in 19 of 78 (24%) cats, and HD was diagnosed radiographically in 25 of 78 (32%) cats (19 mild, 4 moderate, 2 severe). Eighteen of the 25 cats with HD had bilateral HD. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clinically normal cats may have a certain degree of laxity in the stifle joint, evident as medial patellar subluxation (< grade 1). There is a weak association between MPL and HD, and both conditions may develop, alone or in combination, more frequently than has been reported. [on SciFinder (R)]


Koch, D. A., G. St, D. Savoldelli, H. L'Eplattenier and P. M. Montavon (1998). "The diagnosis of patellar luxation in small animals". Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd FIELD Full Journal Title:Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 140(9): 371-4.

            A standard diagnostic procedure for patellar luxation is described. It is based upon the patellar luxations grade 1 to 4, which have been published before, and contains additional definitions in terms of the animals positioning toward the examiner. [on SciFinder (R)]


Koch, D. A. and P. M. Montavon (1997). "Clinical experiences with the therapy for patella luxation of small animals using sulcoplasty and lateral and cranial relocation of the tuberositas tibiae". Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd FIELD Full Journal Title:Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 139(6): 259-64.

            Twenty cases with patellar luxation in dogs and cats, in which a sulcoplasty and cranialisation of the tuberositas tibiae were performed, were investigated and reviewed retrospectively. Twelve knees were available for follow-up after a mean period of 15 months. Clinical scoring of patients showed eight with no lameness, three with an occasional weightbearing lameness, and one with a frequent weightbearing lameness. The patella was stable and could not be luxated in ten out of twelve cases. Degenerative joint disease was slightly progressive in the postoperative period. It did not impair the outcome of the procedure. [on SciFinder (R)]


Davies, M. and I. Gill (1987). Congenital patellar luxation in the cat. ENGLAND: United Kingdom, Parkside Veterinary Surgery, New Ferry, Wirral: 474-5.

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Prior, J. E. (1985). "Luxating patellae in Devon rex cats". Vet Rec FIELD Full Journal Title:The Veterinary record 117(7): 154-5.

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Flecknell, P. A. (1977). "Luxation of the patella in cats". Vet Rec FIELD Full Journal Title:The Veterinary record 100(25): 536-7.

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Oettel, M., D. Elsner, E. Schimke, P. Teichmann, H. E. Schneider and E. Schneider (1974). "Clinical data on the use of estriol-testosterone combinations in small animal practice". Arch Exp Veterinarmed FIELD Full Journal Title:Archiv fur experimentelle Veterinarmedizin 28(5): 783-9.

            A combination of oestriol and testosterone oenanthate was tried in 14 different indications on 110 dogs and 5 cats of both sexes. Two formulations were used, containing in 1 ml either 0.15 mg oestriol and 2.25 mg testosterone or 1.15 mg of the former and 2.25 mg of the latter. Dosage was 0.2 ml per kg body weight, by i/m injection. The criterion for success was the degree of functional restitution, without taking into account pathological changes, which were generally unaffected. Good or very good results were obtained in hip dysplasia, arthitis and patellar luxation. None of the 50 bitches treated showed signs of oestrus or irregularities in the cycle. The formulation containing the lower drug concentration seemed to give the best therapeutic results. [on SciFinder (R)]









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